Ukraine, as depicted in European maps of the 17th and 18th centuries, referred to the regions of Kiev, Podolia, Chernihiv, and Braclaw Voivodships, which were under the control of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The modern borders of Ukraine began to take shape following a rebellion in 1648 by the Cossacks against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the rebellion, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky entered into the Treaty of Pereyaslav in January 1654, which established a controversial relationship between the Cossack Hetmanate and Russia. This agreement led to the Russo-Polish War of 1654-67 and the unsuccessful Treaty of Hadiach, which aimed to create a Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth. As a result, the Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed in 1686, designating the eastern part of Ukraine (east of the Dnieper River) as part of Russian territory. The Crimean Khanate, Edisan Horde, and Budzhak Horde were eventually conquered and colonized by the Russian Empire through subsequent wars with the Ottoman Empire.